10. RELATED EXAMPLES AND REFERENCES

Kilims of Bessarabian/Moldavian type


1. A kilim dated 1814 in the collection of Muzeul de Istorie al Judetului Prahova, inv. no. 3585. The trees from the kilim have similar roots and flowers with those of the flag. This example proves that already in 1814 only few elements from the flag design survived and they were used for decorative pieces.
2. A kilim dated 1814 in the collection of Muzeul Naţional al Ţăranului Român, inv. no. S.61. The goblets are oversimplified, they no longer suggest fecundation as in the flag. The goblet from the Calusari flag is the archetype for all Bessarabian kilims having rows of flower vase. This example is also a decorative piece.
3. A kilim dated 1836 in the collection of Muzeul Judeţean de Istorie şi Arheologie Prahova, inv. no. 6.4-4983. This example proves that in 1836 the design was almost lost, this kilim has only the root and flower motif similar with that of the Căluşari flag. This example is also a decorative piece.
4. A kilim dated 1850 in the collection of Muzeul Naţional al Ţăranului Român, inv. no. 2025. Few design elements similar with those of the flag. This example is also a decorative piece.
5. A kilim dated 1866 and signed Maria in the collection of Muzeul Naţional al Ţăranului Român, inv. no. 1900. The kilim has three tree of life reminiscently from the flag design. This example is also a decorative piece.
6. A kilim dated late 19th century in the collection of Muzeul Naţional al Ţăranului Român, inv. no. S.974. The comb motif from the flag have in this case has pure decorative purpose. This example is also a decorative piece.

Kilims of Oltenia type


1. A kilim dated 18th century in the collection of Muzeul de Istorie al Judetului Prahova, inv. no. 3001. The iele representation were already an oversimplified decorative element. Birds are used as decorative elements and scattered randomly in the border and main field of the kilim. The kilim shows a ! circus representation, and mix reminiscently geometric motifs from the flag with sinuous branches. This example is also a decorative piece.
2. A kilim dated 1800-1850 in the collection of Muzeul Naţional al Ţăranului Român, inv. no. S. 109. The iele representation are an oversimplified decorative element. The border has oversimplified staves reminiscently from the flag design. Industrial dyes were already used instead of natural dyes. This example is also a decorative piece.

Copies

A kilim dated 1850-1900 in the collection of Muzeul Naţional al Satului Dimitrie Gusti, Bucharest, inv. no. 36818. The flag design is doubled. This example is a decorative piece. A similar doubled design is in the collection of Muzeul de Istorie al Judetului Prahova. A 19th century copy is purportedly known to be in the collection of Muzeul Olteniei Craiova.

IMPORTANCE OF THE FLAG

The present Căluş ritual flag is the archetype design for both Bessarabia and Oltenia type of decorative kilims. Furthermore, the flag explain the origin of the ritual: the Căluş ritual evolved from an agriculture fertility ritual of Gumelniţa Culture.

References

Bloch, Maurice 1974. Symbols, Song, Dance and Features of Articulation, în Archives européennes de sociologie, tome 15, no. 1-2, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Cantemir, Dimitrie 1716. Descriptio antiqui et hodierni status Moldaviae.

Durkheim, Émile 2008. Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse, (The Elementary Forms of Religious Life), University Press, Oxford.

Elefterescu, Emil 1922. Ielele, Şezătoarea, XXXth year, no. 5, Ed. Gutemberg J. Bendit, Folticeni.

Elefterescu, Emil 1922. Originea şi istoricul jocului căluşarilor, Şezătoarea, XXXth year, no. 12, Ed. Gutemberg J. Bendit. Folticeni

Eliade, Mircea 1967. Observation on European Witchcraft, în Occultism, Witchcraft and Cultural Fashions. Essays in Comparative Religions, Chicago University Press.

Chicago. Eliade, Mircea 1973. Notes on the Calusari The Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society of Columbia University, vol.5 [pp. 115-122]

Gallop, Rodney 1934. Origins of the Morris Dance, Journal of the English Folk Dance and Song Society, no. I, London.

Gerando, Auguste, 1845. La Transylvanie et ses habitants, Paris.

Giurchescu, Anca 1984. Danse et Transe: Les căluşari, Interpretation d’un rituel valaque, Dialogue 12-13, Montpellier.

Giurchescu, Anca and Bloland, Sunni 1995. Romanian Traditional Dance. A Contextual and Structural Approach, Wild Flower Press, Mill Valley, CA.

Golescu, Iordache 1832. Condica limbii rumâneşti.

Greimas, Algirdas-Julien 1971. Réflexions sur les objets ethno-sémiotiques, Manifestations poétique, musical et gestuelle, Premier Congres International d’Ethnologie,Paris.

Herseni, Teodor 1977. Forme străvechi de cultură poporană românească, Studii de paleoetnografie a cetelor de feciori din aria Oltului, Ed. Dacia, Cluj.

Jung, Carl Gustav. A Psychological Approach to the Dogma of the TrinityColl. Works, Vol. 11, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.

Kligman, Gail 1981. Căluş. Symbolic Transformation in Romanian Ritual. The University of Chicago Press, Chigago, London [pp. 45-65 and 66-83].

Kernbach, Victor 1982. Dicţionar de mitologie generală, Editura Albatros, Bucureşti.

Pop, Mihai 1938. Căluşarii români la Londra şi realitatea folklorică a Bucureştilor, Sociologie Românească, III, no. 10-12.

Sulzer, Franz Joseph 1781. Geschichte des transalpinischen Daciens das ist: der Walachen, Moldau und Bessarabiens: in Zusammenhange mit der Geschichte des ubrigen Daciens als ein Versuch einer allgemeinen dacischen Geschichte mit kritischer Freiheit entworfen, Wien.

Vuia, Romulus 1935. The Romanian Hobby-Horse: The Căluşari, în Journal of the English Folk, Dance and Song Society, vol. II, London.

Vulcănescu, Romulus 1970. Măştile populare, Ed. Ştiinifică, Bucureşti.

West, Martin Litchfield 2007. Indo-European Poetry and Myth, Oxford University Press.

Wolfram, R., 1934. Sword Dances and Secret Societies, Journal of English Folk dance and Song Society.