9. ETNOGRAPHY AND ARCHEOLOGY CONVERGENCE

The above interpretation of flag is in agreement of narratives from ethnographic fieldworks and other works which describe the ritual, namely:
[Cantemir, D. 1716], [Sulzer, F.J. 1781], [Golescu, I. 1832], [Gerando, A. 1845], [Elefterescu, E. 1922], [Wolfram R. 1934], [Gallop, R. 1934], [Pop, M. 1938], [Vulcanescu, R. 1970], [Bloch, M. 1974], [Herseni, T. 1977], [Kernbach, 1982], [Giurchescu, A. 1984, 1995], the list being open.

Archeology convergence with Gumelniţa Culture manifested by: iele representation, totem representation, staves representation, and mask and hatching bird representation.

Iele Representation


Fig. 27

Fig. 28

Fig. 29

Fig. 30

Fig. 31

Fig. 32
FIG.30 Gumelniţa Culture, Anthropomorphic feminine idol, circa 4,250 B.C., Teleorman Museum, Alexandria, România
FIG.31 Gumelniţa Culture, Anthropomorphic feminine idol, circa 4,500 B.C., Teleorman Museum, Alexandria, România
FIG.32 Gumelniţa Culture, Anthropomorphic feminine idol, circa 4,250 B.C., Teleorman Museum, Alexandria, România

Earliest sources describe the iele as being three feminine deities [Cantemir, 1716]. This arrangement of deities into triplets appeared very early, at the primitive level and is considered an archetype in the history of religion [Jung]. Three feminine deities worship is considered to be of pre-Indo-European origin [West] and specific to Neolithic Cultures from Eastern Europe [Gimbutas].

Totem Representation


Fig. 33

Fig. 34

Fig. 35

FIG. 34 Gumelniţa Culture , Bird Goddess circa 4,500 B.C., Dunărea de Jos Museum, Olteniţa,  România
FIG. 35 Gumelniţa Culture , Bird Goddess circa 3,500 B.C.,Muzeul Civilizaţiei Gumelniţa, Olteniţa, România

The totem explain the origin of the apical ancestor of the group while holding enormous power over the solidarity of the clan [Durkheim].


Staves Representation


Fig. 36

Fig. 37

Fig. 38

Fig. 39

Fig. 38 Gumelniţa Culture, Bone with anthropomorphic prismatic figure, Teohari Antonescu Museum, Giurgiu, România
Fig. 39 Gumelniţa Culture, Bone with anthropomorphic prismatic figure Teohari Antonescu Museum, Giurgiu, România

Mask and Hatching Bird Representation


Fig. 40

Fig. 41

Fig. 41 Gumelniţa Culture, Rhombic head, triangular face,  circa 4,500 B.C.,National History Museum,  Bucureşti, România
Fig. 43 Gumelniţa Culture, Hatching Bird, circa 3,500 B.C. Muzeul Dunării de Jos, Călăraşi, România


Fig. 42

Fig. 43